Your doctor will recommend the best treatment for you and this will be determined by the size of your AVM and also the location. It is not uncommon to recommend a combination of treatments.
Another option is to do nothing at all and just monitor the AVM. Your doctors may recommend observation if they feel that treatment can not be offered safely or when an AVM is discovered at a late age.
Under general anaesthesia a small catheter (plastic tube) is advanced from the groin, into the brain vessels and then into the AVM. A liquid, non-reactive glue is injected into the vessels which form the AVM to block the AVM off. There is a small risk to this procedure and the chances of completely curing the AVM using this technique depend on the size of the AVM. It is frequently combined with the other treatments such as radiation or surgery.
This treatment is also known as Radiosurgery or Stereotactic Radiotherapy. A narrow x-ray beam is focused on the AVM such that a high dose is concentrated on the AVM with a much lower dose delivered to the rest of the brain. This radiation causes the AVM to shrivel up and close off over a period of 2-3 years in up to 80% of patients. The risk of complications is low. Until the AVM is completely closed off, the risk of bleeding still persists.
This is the oldest method for treating AVMs. The AVM is surgically removed in an operating room under general anesthesia. Since AVMs do not grow back, the cure is immediate and permanent if the AVM is removed completely. The risks of surgery are considered to be high for AVMs that are located in deep parts of the brain with very important functions.